Constitution of the Republic of Poland

The current Constitution of the Republic of Poland, adopted by the National Assembly (i.e. a joint session by the Sejm and Senate) on 2nd April 1997, was accepted by the nation in a referendum that took place on 25th May 1997.

The Constitution became effective on 16th October when it was signed by the Polish president, Aleksander Kwaśniewski. The supreme legislative act of the Republic of Poland guarantees all civil rights which are deemed standard in a democratic rule of law: freedom and personal, political, economic, social and cultural rights.

Observance of the Constitution is supervised by all state authorities, but the most prominent function is served by a special court appointed to investigate compliance with the constitution – the Constitution Tribunal. Every citizen is entitled to file a complaint regarding a violation of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland to the Constitution Tribunal.

Poland became a constitutional state in the 18th Century, on 3 May 1791, when the Great Sejm adopted the Constitution. The Polish Constitution was the first modern constitution in Europe and is preceded only by the Constitution of the United States of 1787.